Farm and Food Legal Resources
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Accounting and Taxation

Research by Topic: Estate Planning & Taxation
National Agricultural Law Center
This website provides an overview of estate planning, and covers topics including key planning considerations, planning succession, federal estate taxation, federal gift tax, generation skipping transfer tax, and state death tax.  The site also contains links to the major statutes and regulations relevant to estate planning and taxation, among other resources.  

Publication 225, Farmer’s Tax Guide
Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
This IRS publication “explains how the federal tax laws apply to farming.”  The IRS suggests that farmers use this publication as a guide for completing their taxes and farm tax returns.

Tax Guide: For Owners and Operators of Small and Medium Sized Farms
Rural Tax Education
This resource serves as a tax guide for small and medium sized farms.  It provides a range of essential information for completing your taxes as an owner or operator of a small or medium sized farm. 

Managing Debt to Prepare for Farm Transfer
Farmers’ Legal Action Group
This resource provides “an introduction to key estate planning concepts for the family farmer, with an emphasis on planning for how a farm debt is handled after the farmer’s death.”  Furthermore, the publication provides “specific information for farmers who have direct loans from the United States Department of Agriculture’s Farm Service Agency (USDA-FSA).”

Research by Topic: Estate Planning & Taxation
National Agricultural Law Center
This website provides a variety of resources relevant to agricultural estate planning and taxation, including links to major statutes, regulations, case law, and other research publications.  It also provides links to additional websites with in-depth information on topics ranging from succession planning to federal estate and gift taxation.

Small Farm Tax Guide
Rural Tax Education
This website provides access to a tax guide for owners and operators of small and medium-sized farms.  Among the topics covered in the guide are farm income and farm deductions, tools for managing tax liability, farm transfer, and tax reporting and payment.

Publication 225, Farmer’s Tax Guide
Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
This website provides access to a publication explaining how federal tax laws apply to farming.  The publication is intended to serve as a guide for calculating farm tax and completing farm tax returns.

Topics: Tax and IRS
Center for Agricultural Law and Taxation at Iowa State University
This website “provides timely, critically objective information to producers, professionals and agribusinesses concerning the application of important developments in agricultural law and taxation.”  The resources available include links to Internal Revenue Service (IRS) guidance documents and draft tax forms.

Tax Protests for Properties Near Factory Farms
Environmental & Natural Law Clinic at Vermont Law School
This website provides resources to property owners who live near a factory farm and wish to challenge their property tax assessment because they believe the assessor did not adequately consider the factory farm’s presence.  Resources include state-specific information and a factory farm impact fact sheet, among others. 

Farm Business Entities
Farm Commons
This webpage provides a chart comparing various business organizational structures, and an outline for how to create an LLC (Limited Liability Corporation).

Small Scale Food Entrepreneurship: A Technical Guide for Food Ventures
Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station
This resource provides a broad range of information for food entrepreneurs.  Specific information on business and accounting matters can be found in chapter II.   

Tax Guide for Small Business (For Individuals Who Use Schedule C or C-EZ)
Internal Revenue Service
This resource “provide[s] general information about the federal tax laws that apply to small business owners who are sole proprietors and to statutory employees.  This publication has information on business income, expenses, and tax credit that may help you file your income tax return.”